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Denmark consists of the peninsula of Jutland and approx. 407 islands, of which c. 79 are inhabited (2007). Of these, the largest and most densely populated are Zealand on which the capital of Copenhagen is situated, Funen and the north Jutland island. In addition to Denmark itself, the kingdom also includes the Faroe Islands and Greenland.


Towards the end of the 10th century, Denmark was united into a single kingdom. It has been an independent country ever since, and is thus one of the oldest states in Europe.


The form of government is a parliamentary democracy with a royal head of state. The system of production is capitalist (economic liberalism) with private ownership of businesses and production. The state and other public authorities, however, exercise a considerable regulatory control and provide comprehensive services for the citizens.

Standard of living

Denmark is a developed industrialised country. By international standards, the standard of living is high, and the differences between rich and poor are smaller than in many of the countries with which Denmark is traditionally compared.

European Union

Denmark is a member of the European Union. The proximity of Germany has traditionally orientated the country south in an economic and political sense, but close co-operation with Sweden, Norway, Finland and Iceland, with which Denmark enjoys a passport union, also ties Denmark to the North.


The population stands at c. 5,482 million, and the population density is c. 126.4 per square kilometre. Foreign immigrants and their descendants amount to c. 478,000.


The language is everywhere Danish, and the vast majority of the population has been baptised into the established protestant church. Denmark is therefore nationally and culturally very homogeneous.

Agriculture and industrial production

Danish agriculture is highly developed, producing a considerable surplus of manufactured foods which are exported to other countries.

Industrial production is very varied in relation to the size of the country. Among the commodities that have made Denmark known abroad are, in addition to agricultural produce, beer, medicines, furniture, shipping, wind turbines and products of the advanced metal industries.

Economy and trade

Denmark has an open economy, and trade with the rest of the world is of great importance. Imports and exports of goods and services thus represent, respectively, c. 37% and 43% of the country?s GDP (2003). Around 2/3 of foreign trade is with the other countries in the EU; the remainder is divided among a very large number of trading partners, of which Norway and the USA are the most important.